Square centrifuges are utilized depending on the size, density, medium viscosity, and rotor speed. Gravitational forces within a solution cause particles with densities greater than the solvent to sink and those with densities less than the solvent to float to the top. Centrifugation separates particles inside a solution by taking advantage of even tiny changes in density.
Centrifugal force is created as the rotor rotates around a central axis, pushing particles away from the axis of rotation. Particles will sediment if the centrifugal force exceeds the buoyant forces of liquid media and the frictional forces produced by the particle.
The product can separate fluids, gases, or liquids based on density in various laboratories. Centrifuges are employed in clinical and research facilities to purify cells, organelles, viruses, proteins, and nucleic acids. The separation of different components of whole blood using a centrifuge is an example of its use in a clinical environment.
Serum or plasma is required for several assays and can be obtained through centrifugation. A full blood sample can clot at room temperature to get the serum. Centrifugation removes the clot from the sample, leaving a serum supernatant behind.
In contrast to serum, plasma is made from whole blood that has not been allowed to clot; it contains serum and clotting factors. A full blood sample is taken in tubes that have been anticoagulant-treated to get plasma. Cells are taken out of the plasma after centrifugation, leaving the plasma supernatant.
The size and brittleness of the particles in the sample determine the best centrifugation speed. The centrifugation speed increases with decreasing particle size. Bacteria are pelleted at faster speeds (2000–10,000 x g) and for more delicate samples, slower centrifugation speeds may be used. RCF is another crucial element that affects the effectiveness of separation.
RCF is proportional to the square of RPM and the rotor's radius. Centrifugation speeds of 1000 RPM for 5 minutes and 500 RPM for 10 minutes cannot be substituted because of the square dependence of RCF on RPM. The former generates a significantly greater RCF than the latter. Therefore, it's crucial to consider RCF when choosing the speed and duration of your centrifugation.